Table of contents 2nd edition

Open Source GIS: A GRASS GIS Approach
Markus Neteler, Helena Mitasova
2. Edition 2004, 424 pages
ISBN: 1-4020-8064-6
Kluwer Academic Publishers/Springer, Boston
Book Series: The Kluwer international series in Engineering and Computer Science: Volume 773

[ New edition 2007 ]

Table of contents
List of Figuresxiii
List of Tablesxix
Preface to the First Editionxxv
Preface to the Second Editionxxvii
1Open Source software and GIS1
1.1Open Source concept1
1.2GRASS as an Open Source GIS3
1.3How to read this book4
2GIS concepts7
2.1General GIS principles7
2.1.1Geospatial data models7
2.1.2Organization of GIS data11
2.1.3GIS functionality12
2.2Map projections and coordinate systems13
2.2.1Map projection principles14
2.2.2Common coordinate systems17
2.2.3North American and European Datums20
3Getting started with GRASS23
3.1First steps23
3.1.1Download and install GRASS23
3.1.2Database and command structure25
3.1.3Starting GRASS with demo database Spearfish28
3.1.4GRASS file and location management31
3.2Starting GRASS with a new project34
3.2.2Universal Transverse Mercator39
3.2.3State Plane42
3.2.4Non-georeferenced xy coordinate system44
3.3Coordinate system transformations45
3.3.1Coordinates lists46
3.3.2Map layers48
3.3.3Reprojecting with GDAL/OGR tools49
4GRASS data models and data exchange53
4.1Raster data53
4.1.1GRASS raster data model53
4.1.2Managing raster map resolution and boundaries55
4.1.3Import of georeferenced raster data57
4.1.4Import and geocoding of scanned maps61
4.2Vector data68
4.2.1GRASS vector data model68
4.2.2Import of vector data70
4.2.3Export of vector data78
4.3Sites data80
4.3.1GRASS sites data model80
4.3.2Import of sites data81
4.3.3Export of sites data83
5Working with raster data85
5.1Viewing and managing raster map layers85
5.1.1Displaying raster data and assigning a color table85
5.1.2Raster map queries and profiles87
5.1.3Zooming and generating subsets from raster maps88
5.1.4Managing metadata of raster maps90
5.1.5Reclassification of raster maps91
5.1.6Assigning category labels93
5.1.7Masking and handling of no-data values97
5.2Raster map algebra99
5.3Raster data transformation and interpolation105
5.3.1Automated vectorization of discrete raster data105
5.3.2Generating isolines representing continuous fields107
5.3.3Raster data transformation to sites108
5.3.4Interpolation of raster data and resampling108
5.3.5Recoding of raster map types and value replacements110
5.4Spatial analysis with raster data111
5.4.1Map statistics and neighborhood analysis111
5.4.2Overlaying and merging raster maps115
5.4.3Buffering of raster features118
5.4.4Cost surfaces120
5.4.5DEM and watershed analysis123
5.4.6Landscape structure analysis and modeling129
6Working with Vector Data131
6.1Digitizing vector data131
6.1.1General principles for digitizing topological data132
6.1.2Digitizing in GRASS133
6.2Metadata and attributes management139
6.2.1Managing metadata of vector maps140
6.2.2Map attributes modifications140
6.3Viewing and analysis141
6.3.1Displaying vector map layers141
6.3.2Intersecting and clipping vector maps142
6.3.3Map reclassification144
6.3.4Feature extraction from vector data145
6.4Vector data transformations to/from raster and sites145
6.4.1Automatic vectorization of raster data146
6.4.2Direct transformation of vector data to raster or sites147
6.4.3Interpolating raster surfaces from contour lines147
7Working with site data151
7.1Creating site data151
7.1.1Digitizing site data151
7.1.2Generating site data within GRASS152
7.2Viewing and managing site data154
7.2.1Displaying site data and creating subsets154
7.2.2Computing basic statistics156
7.3Transformation from sites to rasters and spatial interpolation157
7.3.1Selecting an interpolation method157
7.3.2Interpolating with RST: tuning the parameters160
7.3.3Estimating accuracy165
7.3.4Interpolating large data sets166
7.3.5Surfaces with faults171
7.3.6Adding third variable: precipitation with elevation171
7.3.7Volume and volume-temporal interpolation174
7.3.8Geostatistics and splines175
8Graphical output and visualization177
8.1Two-dimensional display and animation177
8.1.1Displaying map layers using the GRASS monitor177
8.1.2Creating a 2D shaded elevation map180
8.1.3Monitor output to PNG and HTML files181
8.1.4Animations in 2D space183
8.2Visualization in 3D space with NVIZ184
8.2.1Viewing multiple map layers184
8.2.2Querying and analyzing data in nviz189
8.2.3Creating animations in 3D space191
8.2.4Visualizing volumes195
8.3Creating hardcopy maps196
8.3.1Map generation with ps.map196
8.3.2Map design with Xfig and Skencil198
9Satellite image processing201
9.1Remote sensing basics201
9.1.1Spectrum and remote sensing201
9.1.2Satellite sensors203
9.2Satellite data import and export206
9.2.1Import of raw and geocoded satellite data206
9.2.2Export of multi-channel data sets209
9.3Understanding a satellite data set209
9.3.1Managing channels and colors209
9.3.2The feature space and image groups213
9.4Geometric and radiometric preprocessing215
9.4.1Geometric preprocessing215
9.4.2Radiometric preprocessing222
9.4.3Application: Deriving a surface temperature map from thermal channel228
9.5Radiometric transformations and image enhancements231
9.5.1Image ratios231
9.5.2Principal Component Transformation231
9.6Geometric feature analysis233
9.6.1Matrix filter: Spatial convolution filtering234
9.6.2Edge detection236
9.7Image fusion237
9.7.1Introduction to RGB and IHS color model237
9.7.2RGB color composites238
9.7.3Image fusion with IHS transformation239
9.7.4Image fusion with Brovey transformation241
9.8Thematic reclassification of satellite data242
9.8.1Unsupervised radiometric reclassification245
9.8.2Supervised radiometric reclassification248
9.8.3Supervised SMAP reclassification251
10Processing of aerial photos253
10.1Brief introduction to aerial photogrammetry253
10.2From aerial photo to orthophoto257
10.3Orthophoto generation257
10.3.1Aerial photo and LOCATIONs preparation258
10.3.2Orthophoto generation from vertical aerial photos260
10.3.3Generating orthophotos from oblique aerial photos266
10.4Segmentation and pattern recognition for aerial images268
11Notes on GRASS programming271
11.1GRASS programming environment271
11.1.1GRASS source code272
11.1.2Methods of GRASS programming273
11.1.3Level of integration273
11.2Script programming274
11.3Automated usage of GRASS280
11.4Notes on programming GRASS modules in C282
12Using GRASS: Application Examples289
12.1Working with Digital Elevation Models: erosion risk assessment289
12.1.1Computation of the LS factor290
12.1.2Estimating R, K, and C factors296
12.1.3Computing and analyzing erosion risk298
12.2GIS modeling for land management301
12.2.1Building the GIS database302
12.2.2Deriving new map layers308
12.2.3Land use analysis, problems and solutions316
13Using GRASS with other Open Source tools327
13.1Geostatistics with GRASS and gstat328
13.2Spatial data analysis with GRASS and R333
13.2.1Spearfish data set analysis335
13.2.2Maas river bank soils data analysis344
13.2.3Using R in batch mode352
13.3GPS data handling354
13.4WebGIS applications with UMN/MapServer356
AUsing UNIX text tools for GIS data preparation367
BSelected equations used in GRASS modules371
B.1Basic Statistics371
B.3Topographic analysis373
CUMN/MapServer sample configuration383
C.1UMN/MapServer definition file383
C.2UMN/MapServer HTML template386